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High Pressure

  • high pressure is often associated with high strength but also higher wall thickness or simply driven by the wish to increase the pressure, it has direct and indirect implications on safety
  • increase in absolute as well as relative pressure in gas transmission pipelines may result in the necessity for a case-by-case assessment of fracture propagation resistance as the simplified solutions and tables are not valid, research leads towards further incorporating these solutions to ease the use of higher grades and the operation at higher pressure
  • high pressure / high temperature (HP/HT) is an issue offshore where both temperature and pressure are controlled by the reservoir; flow assurance is a crucial issue, pipe in pipe systems to control the temperature, buckling may be promoted by thermal expansion, installation of HP/HT pipelines is challenging and may induce the need of strain-based design concepts